From Rigs of Rods Wiki
Wings in RoR are a little bit of magic. They introduce aerodynamic effects onto planes, boats, and trucks. Although propulsion engines (motors, props, screws) cannot be combined, wings can be added to any sort of vehicle to provide aerodynamic force.
The wing section declares parts of the chassis as wings, and that they should bear aerodynamic forces. Each line of this section designs a wing segment, that is a homogeneous part of a wing. You can (and you should!) make a plane's wing from several contiguous wing segments. Rudder and elevators are also made with one or more wing segments.
Each wing segment is bounded by 8 nodes, that defines the "bounding box" of the wing, specifically its span, chord and thickness. You must ensure that these nodes are properly interconnected by beams to ensure the structural integrity of the wing.
Notice that it is VERY IMPORTANT to declare contiguous wing segments (i.e. that shares nodes) IN SEQUENTIAL ORDER FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, and you should avoid cutting a wing in two at the fuselage, but make the whole wing continuous across the fuselage because it helps to compute whole-wing effects like induced drag and other things like wing lights.
A very important aerodynamic parameter is the wing airfoil. The airfoil is the tear-like shape of the wing, and its exact geometry is very important for the characteristics and performances of real-world wings. RoR uses precomputed performances curves from standard airfoils, interpolated from wing tunnel tests. These curves are stored in .afl files.
Standard airfoils provided in RoR are:
- NACA64.1.412 - actual airfoil of the wing tip of the Hercules C-130
- NACA64.3.618 - similar airfoil to the wing root of the Hercules C-130
- NACA0009 - standard symmetrical airfoil, good for rudder and elevators
- Clark-Y - used for propellers, but is also very popular for main wings
You can get more airfoil from the popular X-Plane flight simulator. RoR is compatible with X-Plane .afl, but you must convert their end-of-line style from MacOS to Windows using an advanced text editor, or RoR will crash.
Here's an example:
And the corresponding wings section :
wings ;right wing ;1 6,8,5,7,12,10,11,9, 0.509, 0.999, 0.555, 0.751, 0.752, 0.999, 0.752, 0.751, n, 1.0, 0, 0, NACA64.1.412.afl ;2 4,6,3,5,14,12,13,11, 0.509, 0.999, 0.555, 0.751, 0.752, 0.999, 0.752, 0.751, a, 0.75, -24, 24, NACA64.1.412.afl ;3 2,4,1,3,16,14,15,13, 0.509, 0.999, 0.555, 0.751, 0.752, 0.999, 0.752, 0.751, n, 1.0, 0, 0, NACA64.1.412.afl ;left wing ;4 18,2,17,1,28,16,27,15, 0.509, 0.999, 0.555, 0.751, 0.752, 0.999, 0.752, 0.751, n, 1.0, 0, 0, NACA64.1.412.afl ;5 20,18,19,17,26,28,25,27, 0.509, 0.999, 0.555, 0.751, 0.752, 0.999, 0.752, 0.751, b, 0.75, -24, 24, NACA64.1.412.afl ;6 22,20,21,19,24,26,23,25, 0.509, 0.999, 0.555, 0.751, 0.752, 0.999, 0.752, 0.751, n, 1.0, 0, 0, NACA64.1.412.afl
An air brake is a moving panel used to slow down an airplane. It is positioned similarly to a "props", with noderef, nodex, nodey, nodea, offsetx, offsety, offsetz.
The airbrake needs 4 nodes (noderef, nodex, nodey, nodea) to position it. pick 4 nodes that form a square or rectangle at the position you want your airbrake. This picture shows a basic airbrake setup, you can see the offsetx, and offsety in red move the airbrake back and forth along that direction. Offset Z will move it up and down vertically (in this case).
It takes time to position a airbrake just right. Make one adjustment at a time and see what the change did in game before you make another. The 4 nodes you choose will determine the direction your airbrake points. If the airbrake is backwards, swap the noderef, nodex, nodey, nodea around until it points the way you want.
Width and length control how long or wide the airbrake is. Simply adjust these numbers until the airbrake is the size you want.
Max angle is the maximum angle the airbrake will lift when fully engaged. Then comes two texture coordinates that texture the airbrake using your vehicles texture pic.
Air brakes can easily be added to a wing box, just set noderef, nodex, nodey and nodea as the four upper nodes of a wing box.
airbrakes ; noderef, nodex, nodey, nodea, offsetx, offsety, offsetz, width, length, max angle, texcord x1, texcoord y1, texcoord x2, texcoord y2 95, 105, 113, 125, 0.2, 0.0, 0.0, 2.0, 3.0, 60.0, 0.044, 0.205, 0.124, 0.146